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The following methods can be defined to emulate numeric objects. Methods corresponding to operations that are not supported by the particular kind of number implemented (e.g., bitwise operations for non-integral numbers) should be left undefined.

These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic operations ( + , - , * , @ , / , // , % , divmod() , pow() , ** , << , >> , , ^ , | ). For instance, to evaluate the expression x + y , where x is an instance of a class that has an __add__() method, x.__add__(y) is called. The __divmod__() method should be the equivalent to using __floordiv__() and Pink color sparkling shoe customized ballerina latest fashion shoe flat shoes Supply Sale Online 8zcFIrkDpZ
; it should not be related to __truediv__() . Note that __pow__() should be defined to accept an optional third argument if the ternary version of the built-in pow() function is to be supported.

If one of those methods does not support the operation with the supplied arguments, it should return NotImplemented .

These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic operations ( + , - , * , @ , / , // , % , divmod() , pow() , ** , << , >> , , ^ , | ) with reflected (swapped) operands. These functions are only called if the left operand does not support the corresponding operation [3] and the operands are of different types. [4] For instance, to evaluate the expression x - y , where y is an instance of a class that has an __rsub__() method, y.__rsub__(x) is called if x.__sub__(y) returns NotImplemented .

You can query using NOT EXISTS with ~Exists() .

It’s not possible to filter directly using Subquery and Exists , e.g.:

You must filter on a subquery expression by first annotating the queryset and then filtering based on that annotation:

Aggregates may be used within a Subquery , but they require a specific combination of filter() , values() , and annotate() to get the subquery grouping correct.

Assuming both models have a length field, to find posts where the post length is greater than the total length of all combined comments:

The initial filter(...) limits the subquery to the relevant parameters. order_by() removes the default ordering (if any) on the Comment model. values('post') aggregates comments by Post . Finally, annotate(...) performs the aggregation. The order in which these queryset methods are applied is important. In this case, since the subquery must be limited to a single column, values('total') is required.

This is the only way to perform an aggregation within a Subquery , as using aggregate() attempts to evaluate the queryset (and if there is an OuterRef , this will not be possible to resolve).

Sometimes database expressions can’t easily express a complex WHERE clause. In these edge cases, use the RawSQL expression. For example:

These extra lookups may not be portable to different database engines (because you’re explicitly writing SQL code) and violate the DRY principle, so you should avoid them if possible.

Warning

To protect against SQL injection attacks , you must escape any parameters that the user can control by using params . params is a required argument to force you to acknowledge that you’re not interpolating your SQL with user-provided data.

You also must not quote placeholders in the SQL string. This example is vulnerable to SQL injection because of the quotes around %s :

You can read more about how Django’s SQL injection protection works.

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